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Providing Attendant Care in the Course of Employment, Occupation or Profession: Economic Loss Not Required

If an individual who is involved in a motor vehicle accident is incapable of self-care as a result of their injuries they are eligible to claim Attendant Care Benefits through their own insurance company.  The insurer is only obligated to pay the benefit if the insured person has received the goods or services, has paid or promised to pay the expense, and if the person who provided the goods and services either (A) "did so in the course of the employment, occupation or profession in which he or she would ordinarily have been engaged, but for the accident", or (B) sustained an economic loss as a result of providing the goods or services to the insured person.  In the case of "B", the amount payable has been limited to the amount of the economic loss sustained as a result of providing the attendant care. The first option is normally interpreted as obligating an insurer to pay for a professional service to come into the injured person's home to provide attendant care, such as a personal support worker.  The second option is normally interpreted as requiring an insurer to pay for any economic loss sustained by a "non-professional" (family member or friend) who provides attendant care to an injured individual.  But what if the family member or friend is a professional personal support worker? In the Financial Services Commission of Ontario (FSCO) decision, Michael Walsh and Echelon General Insurance Company [FSCO A15-007448], Arbitrator Benjamin Drory confirmed that, if a family member or friend who is a personal support worker provides attendant care to an injured individual, they do not need to sustain an economic loss as a result of providing the attendant care and the amount of attendant care payable is not limited to the amount of any economic loss. Arbitrator Drory made the following comments in this decision:

I find that a service provider falling into the (A) clause--i.e., one that did so in the course of the employment, occupation or profession in which he or she would ordinarily have been engaged--does not need to establish economic loss for the purpose of these provisions. This appears to have been a deliberate effort of legislative drafting, and I accept that if the legislature had intended for the provision to read differently, it could have done so.

I also accept that the legislative intent behind these provisions, as advised to me by both parties, was an intention to prevent abuse of the attendant care benefit by family members who are not trained professionally to do it.

The sole question before me is whether the services provided by Mrs. Walsh to the Applicant were done in the course of the employment, occupation or profession in which she would ordinarily have been engaged. I find that the answer is yes, based on both the case law and the legislative intention presented to me.

He goes on to make the following analogy:

If a lawyer working for salary were to offer legal services pro bono to a cause they cared about outside working hours, would they cease being a lawyer during that time because they weren't being remunerated for it? The answer would quickly be no--and I suspect many might even be offended at the suggestion. The question of what makes one a lawyer should consider one's ability to be remunerated for it--but it also needs to take into consideration one's acquired knowledge and skills relevant and/or necessary to the work, and any licensing authorities involved. One does not lose their skill set or status merely because they will not be remunerated financially in undertaking a particular task. I believe the question of what makes one a PSW is analogous--and is consonant with the decisions of Garson, J. and Arbitrator Fadel. I find it in harmony with the ordinary understanding of what it means to be part of a profession, and the common day-to-day usage of that term.

It also fits with the legislature's intention to restrict access to attendant care benefits by untrained family members and friends reflected in the 2010 and 2014 amendments. Where a family member is a trained professional working in the relevant field, concerns respecting qualification seem to be directly addressed. It would seem odd, as a matter of public policy, to mandate that insureds with trained professionals in their direct families who care for them be obligated to arrange equivalent support services from outside the family in order for it to be compensable. As Arbitrator Fadel noted, there is no restriction in clause (A) of the Schedule that mandates a professional healthcare aide be arm's length, nor do I find it appropriate to read one into it.

This decision can be read in its entirety by clicking here.

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